Hidden Nearby: New Milford’s Underground Railroad Monument

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Two leading figures of the abolitionist movement, John Brown and Harriet Beecher Stowe, were natives of Litchfield County. As such, they would likely have been pleased by the county’s role in the Underground Railroad.  While much of the history of this secret route by which fugitive slaves were ushered to Canada is clouded in myth and legend, there is substantial documentation for a route that passed from the coast to Waterbury, then to New Milford, Washington, Torrington, Winchester and Winsted before crossing into Massachusetts.

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New Milford’s Quaker Meetinghouse, at 300 Danbury Road (Rt. 7).

Quakers took the lead in operations in New Milford, and the Old Friends’ Meetinghouse, which still stands on Route 7 south of town, was a prominent center of activity. Two Centuries of New Milford, an early 20th century history, documented the role of other locations in town in the Underground Railroad:

In the later days of slavery in the South there were several stations of the Underground      Railroad in this vicinity. Mr. Charles Sabin’s house in Lanesville was one, and the                house of Mr. Augustine Thayer on Grove Street in this village was another. Mr. Thayer      and his good wife devoted their lives to the Abolition cause. They helped many poor            slaves on their way, rising from their beds in the night to feed and minister to them, and      secreting them till they could be taken under cover of darkness to Deacon Gerardus          Roberts’ house on Second Hill, from there to Mr. Daniel Platt’s in Washington, and so        on, by short stages, all the way until the Canadian border was reached.

A second prominent stop in Washington was at the home of Frederick Gunn, who established the Gunnery School in 1849.

As fugitive slaves reached Torrington, they likely sought refuge at the home of Isaiah Tuttle and his son, Uriel, who lived in the Torringford section of town. Uriel was president of the Litchfield County and the Connecticut Anti-Slavery Societies. Of his anti-slavery activities, Deacon Thomas Miller wrote, “His efforts and undying zeal in the cause of emancipation are too well known to the public in this state to need a delineation… His house was literally a place of refuge for the panting fugitive, and his purse and team were often employed to help him forward to a place of safety.”

Isaiah Tuttle House, on Torringford Street, Torrington. Courtesy of Connecticut Freedom Trail

Isaiah Tuttle House, on Torringford Street, Torrington. Courtesy of Connecticut Freedom Trail

Other reported stops on the Underground Railroad include the home of Joshua Bird, a deacon at the Bethlehem Congregational Church who lived on the town Green. Henry Terry, grandson of the clockmaker, lived on North Street in Plymouth. An ardent abolitionist, he allegedly had tunnels running from his cellar to an outbuilding to whisk slaves to safety. The presence of tunnels like these fed Southern fears about Northern complicity in helping slaves escape, and the belief that the election of Lincoln in 1860 would lead to legalization of the Underground Railroad were major factors in the decision of southern states to secede from the Union in the winter of 1860-61. Interestingly, when the Emancipation Proclamation was issued almost two years into the war, the number of fugitive slaves making their way to the north dropped precipitously, as they only needed to reach Union lines, not Canada, to achieve freedom.

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Looking to commemorate her town’s role in the Underground Railroad, New Milford resident Frances Smith conceived the idea of a monument at the head of the town green, in the shadow of the Civil War monument. Sculptor Ray Crawford provided the design, which depicts a broken chain, symbolizing the end of slavery. The monument was dedicated on November 17, 2013.

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Hidden Nearby: Housatonic Valley Regional High School’s 75th Anniversary

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Prior to 1939, the six towns that currently comprise Regional School District #1 – Canaan, Cornwall, Kent, North Canaan, Salisbury, and Sharon – each had their own high school.  The cost of providing secondary education in such small towns, especially in the midst of the Great Depression, was becoming increasingly problematic.  In 1935, to reduce these costs and to provide a broader array of academic and extracurricular activities, William Teague (the state-appointed supervisor of rural education) proposed a consolidated high school for the six towns.  In 1937, the state legislature passed a bill creating the new district and establishing the first regional high school in New England.

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Later that year the Regional School Board purchased 75 acres of the Lorch farm at a central point in the region, overlooking the Housatonic River in Falls Village.  Ernest Sibley was hired as the architect and he designed the school in the Georgian Revival style that was popular among New Deal buildings. In 1938 the cornerstone of the building was laid.

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The land, building and equipment associated with the school cost $347,180.  Of this amount, $326,946 came from the Public Works Administration, a New Deal agency designed to build governmental buildings and structures.  Thus, Housatonic became one of the 7,488 schools built by the PWA.

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Paul W. Stoddard, an English teacher from Hartford’s Bulkeley High School, was hired as the school’s first principal and oversaw not only the hiring of the entire staff but also the drafting of the school’s curriculum.  When school opened for the first day on September 25, 1939, the school was in an unfinished state.  Its 374 students trod on bare cement floors, had no lockers, and heard no bells.

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A motto was selected for the school – Felix Prole Virum – “blest in offspring, wise and strong.”  As the towns of northwest Connecticut celebrate their high school’s 75th anniversary, that motto remains painted above the doors to the school.

Sarah Pierce’s Litchfield Female Academy

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The years following the American Revolution were noted for a national impulse to establish grammar schools for young children, and academies for those considering college.  While there were several academies for girls operating in the county, none was more influential or noted than Sarah Pierce’s Litchfield Female Academy.

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Sarah Pierce (Courtesy of National Endowment for the Humanities)

      Pierce was born in Litchfield in 1767.  She never married and instead dedicated her life to educating young women.  Pierce’s father died when Sarah was 16, and her brother, John Pierce, Jr., invested in an education for her sister in the hopes that she would become a teacher and support herself.  The first classes were held in the dining room of the Pierce home.

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            By 1798, Pierce had termed her school the Female Academy and began a subscription list to build a structure, which by 1803 was erected at a site on North Street indicated today by a stone marker.  Here young women were introduced to Pierce’s revolutionary ideas about education – namely, that girls should be taught what boys were, including geography and history.  Pierce went so far as to write her own histories when she couldn’t find suitable texts.

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Litchfield Female Academy

            At the turn of the 19th century, so many students were coming in such large numbers – 130 in one year along – that Pierce needed to hire additional teachers.  The subjects they were responsible for grew to include chemistry, astronomy, and botany.  Academic pursuits were balanced with artistic endeavors including music, dancing, singing, embroidery, drawing, and painting.

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John Pierce Brace (Courtesy of Litchfield Historical Society)

     Pierce brought in her nephew John Pierce Brace, a graduate of Williams College, as a teacher and her ultimate successor as head of the school.  Pierce was noted for his hands-on approach to education, as noted by Mary Wilbor in 1822:  “Mr. Brace had all his bugs to school this P.M.  He has a great variety, two were from China, which were very handsome, all the rest were of Litchfield descent, and he can trace their pedigree as far back as when Noah entered the ark.”

Needlepoint by Sally Miller, Litchfield Female Academy student, 1811

Needlepoint by Sally Miller, Litchfield Female Academy student, 1811

Pierce’s students boarded with Litchfield families.  The town was home to several large boarding houses, including Aunt Bull’s on Prospect Street, and may homes took in students from the Female Academy and the Litchfield Law School (see below).  Pierce was also committed to teaching her students proper etiquette, as evidenced by the following rule:  “You are expected to rise early, be dressed early, be dressed neatly, and to exercise before breakfast.  You are to retire to rest when the family in which you reside request you.  You must consider it a breach of politeness to be requested a second time to rise in the morning or retire of an evening.”

Connecticut tercentennial sign on North Street.

Connecticut tercentennial sign on North Street.

Mary Ann Bacon attended Pierce’s academy in 1802, and boarded with the Andrew Adams family on North Street.  Her diary entry for June 14th, 1802 provides an insight into a typical student experience:

Arose about half past five, took a walk with Miss Adams to Mr. Smith’s to speak          for an embroidering frame.  After breakfast went to school.  I heard the Ladies read      history, studied a Geography lesson and recited it.  In the afternoon I drew read and      spelt.  After my return home my employment was writing and studying I spent the        evening with Mrs. Adams and retired to rest about half past nine o’Clock.

Over 3,000 young women – and about 120 young men – were educated at Pierce’s school before it closed in 1833.  Their intellectual, social, and artistic abilities helped make Litchfield one of early 19th century America’s most cosmopolitan towns.

Hidden Nearby: Camp Columbia State Park in Morris

DSC_0194This post is the third in a partnership with the Litchfield.bz website.  Litchfield.bz is posting video tours of some of the sites visited by this blog.  To see our video tour of Camp Columbia, click here:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=65RY3vqdJ4Q

Camp Columbia State Forest stands as something as a ghost town along Route 109 in Morris.  For nearly 100 years – from 1885 to 1983 – Columbia University held engineering and surveying classes on the more than 500 acre campus, which at its peak occupied nearly one square mile from the shores of Bantam Lake to the Morris/Bethlehem town line.  Here, engineering breakthroughs such as the concrete roof that would later top Madison Square Garden were pioneered.

A 1934 aerial view of Camp Columbia.  Courtesy of the State of Connecticut.

A 1934 aerial view of Camp Columbia. Courtesy of the State of Connecticut.

Land purchases began in 1903.  Prior to this the university had rented land from Mrs. Everett Waugh.  Mrs. Waugh’s farm would become the heart of the property, which soon would feature dormitories, a YMCA building with billiards and ping pong tables, a mess hall, and an astronomical observatory.   Columbia paid $10,000 for the 1903 purchases.

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Officer candidates participating in a World War I training program held at Camp Columbia. Photo courtesy of Columbia University.

In the years prior to World War I, a boathouse was built on Bantam Lake.  Future expansion was halted by the coming of war, and in 1917, officers’ training for the United States Army took place on the property.  Trenches were dug near Munger Lane, and mock infantry assaults swept the camp.  In 1918, the university issued an informational packet for those interested in a second round of training at the camp, which stated that the purpose was to offer “an officers’ training course for men who may be called to the National Army and desire to fit themselves for officers of noncommissioned officers in Government Service.”  The packet stated that the program was conducted by the university, not the Army, but that  it had “the approval and endorsement of the Secretary of War, and the record of the men who attended last summer shows that the course has been effective in preparing men for officers’ rank, real usefulness, and rapid advancement.”

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A 1940s image of the Camp Columbia tower; the tower is still standing but no longer has the hands on the clock. Photo courtesy of Columbia University.

In 1934, a fieldstone dining hall was built and eight years later the central feature of the camp, a 60 foot cylindrical water tower with an observation platform made of local stone was presented to the camp by the Class of 1906.  A 1952 Columbia University press release describes the tower as a “land-locked lighthouse, or the battlement of a feudal castle.”

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Dwight Eisenhower as president of Columbia University.

 Columbia engineering students blasted and leveled the hilly terrain to create a softball field and football field.  In the late 1940s, the Columbia Lions football team held their early season practices here under Coach Lou Little, who paced the sidelines at the school for 26 seasons and was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame in 1960.  Little was supported in his efforts by the then president of Columbia, Dwight D. Eisenhower.  Ike is reported to have spent time at the camp watching practices and hunting on the grounds.

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The Instrument House, one of two surviving structures.

Still, the primary purpose of the camp was as a field school for engineering students, and by the early 1950s the summer program was mandatory for these students.  Courses taught at the camp included Chemical Engineering, Civil Engineering, and Technology & International Affairs.  Additionally, the Columbia University American Language Center offered classes for those international students who wished to apply to American colleges.  The presence of the 60 or so international students in 1952 – from Korea, China, Japan, Malaya, Norway, Sweden, Colombia, Greece, Canada, Brazil, Engalnd and Italy – allowed the university to declare that the camp was “a veritable United Nations in microscosm, the youngsters live together and work together with no more friction than one would find in any other college class.”

Remains of the old flag circle at Camp Columbia.

Remains of the old flag circle at Camp Columbia.

By the mid-1960s, declining student interest in the camp experience and changes to the engineering curriculum brought an end to the Engineering Department’s use of Camp Columbia.  The university maintained the grounds for special programming until 1983 when it was closed.  While the university struggled to find a buyer for the property, the buildings slowly deteriorated.  In 1989, the Town of Morris declared several buildings to be a public hazard and they were utilized in a controlled burning training exercise.

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Remains of an old fountain at Camp Columbia.

In 2000, the State of Connecticut agreed to purchase the grounds for $2.1 million and began to remove most of the buildings.  Today, only the boathouse, tower and instrument house still stand.  Still, for the explorer willing to walk the grounds, hints of foundations and clearings in the forest provide a glimpse into what was once a thriving intellectual community.

The Center School Inscription

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This post is the second to be accompanied by a video hosted by litchfield.bz. You can access the video here: http://m.youtube.com/watch?v=Tql0h1SAqUE&desktop_uri=%2Fwatch%3Fv%3DTql0h1SAqUE

From the 18th through the early 20th century, public education in American towns was run through small school districts. These districts were organized around one-room schoolhouses and were situated to be within walking distance of homes. For example, when established in 1774 the school in Northfield constituted Litchfield’s 14th school district.

The school for the borough of Litchfield was located on West Street, but Arthur Bostwick who was born in Litchfield in 1860 and became a prominent librarian and author, wrote that “nobody went to it who could afford a term’s tuition at the Institute.” (This institute stood on North Street; the Wolcott Institute on South Street closed the year before Bostwick’s birth). This school was destroyed in the great fire that swept town in 1886.

Litchfield High School, on East Street.

Litchfield High School, on East Street.

Two years later a high school opened at the top of East Street. Students were required to study grammar, literature, arithmetic, United States History and geography.

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“1725 First Public School Appropriation”

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“The Center School Litchfield”

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“Bicentennial building dedicated 1925”

There was a movement In the early 20th century to combine the scattered school districts into “consolidated” or “center” schools. It was believed that this would offer students a more specialized education at enhanced economic efficiency to the town. The result for Litchfield was Center School, which opened its doors in 1925, the bicentennial of Litchfield’s first school. This anniversary was commemorated in the inscription at the top of the building. While the building has gone from housing all of Litchfield’s students to only those in grades K-3, the inscription remains as a reminder of the town’s educational history.

Hidden in Plain Sight: The Walking Tour!

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The Litchfield Historical Society is sponsoring a walking tour based on this blog on Saturday, May 18th, at 10:00 a.m.  We’ll explore some of the sites previously discussed on these pages and share thoughts about some that will appear in the future.  The tour will focus on sites on the Litchfield Green and nearby South Street.  Visit the historical society’s website – http://www.litchfieldhistoricalsociety.org – for more information and for registration.

Hope to see you on the tour!

Hidden Nearby: The Morris Academy

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This small marker and the remnants of the foundation mark the location of the Morris Academy, a landmark co-educational institution.

James Morris

The Academy was the brainchild of James Morris III, who was born on January 19, 1752 in South Farms (which, in 1859 was renamed Morris in his honor).  Morris’ father James was a deacon, and the son harbored hopes of entering the ministry.  An enthusiastic reader, young James routinely traveled to Bethlehem to borrow books from that town’s library.  His education, which began with these library books, was guided by three remarkable teachers.

Nathan Hale

At eighteen, Morris began studies under Bethlehem’s Dr. Joseph Bellamy, one of the leading theologians of the late 18th century.  It is reported that Morris also studied under Nathan Hale, before enrolling at Yale.  While at Yale, Timothy Dwight, later president of the university and one of the leading figures in American educational history, served as Morris’ tutor.

The Battle of Yorktown

Following his graduation, Morris returned home to help on the family farm, teach students in Litchfield, and ponder a future in the ministry.  The Revolutionary War, however, got in the way.  He served first in the Connecticut Militia, then in the Continental Army, fighting on Long Island, at White Plains, and at Germantown, Pennsylvania, where he was captured.  Upon receiving parole, he hurried to Yorktown, Virginia, where he served Alexander Hamilton during that climactic battle of the Revolution.

After the war he returned home and married Elizabeth Hubbard, with whom he raised five children.  His fellow townspeople elected him both justice of the peace and a selectman.  By 1790, however, when children began regularly showing up at his door, Morris put aside his ideas about the ministry and looked instead for a career in education.

A typical scene in an early co-educational school

Rare for his time, Morris accepted both boys and girls as students.  This sparked significant discussion, as many believed that education would cause women to lose sight of their more traditional roles.  In 1794, a town hearing was held about the situation, and any charges against Morris were dismissed.

The foundation of the Morris Academy

The foundation of the Morris Academy

By 1800, Morris’ school had grown so large that a formal structure was needed.  Wealthy subscribers were enlisted from the area to subsidize the $1,200 cost of the building, which opened on November 28, 1803.  (The building stood on the property where the James Morris School stands today)  By that time, Morris had educated students from all of the New England states except Rhode Island, as well as New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, South Carolina, Georgia and the West Indies.  He averaged between 50 and 75 students a year.

While Morris died in Goshen in 1820 (he is buried in East Morris), the school remained open until 1888.  As Barbara Nolen Strong wrote in her 1976 book on the Morris Academy, “The Morris Academy is entitled to be called a pioneer institution because of its ‘open door’ policy in coeducation. It was not the first in the United States, not even in Connecticut, but none of the other early academies opened their doors as wide and kept them open as long. No other coeducational academy spread its influence so far.” In a fitting gesture to the impact of James Morris on the community, the town of South Farms changed its name to Morris in 1859.